Chicago Style

The 17th edition of the Chicago Manual was published in late August 2017. Updates coming coon!

Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition

The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed., 2010) provides extensive instructions for two different citation systems:

Chicago Notes and Bibliography style (sometimes called "Chicago A") uses footnotes or endnotes supplemented by a concluding bibliography. This style is commonly used by scholars in the fields of history and the humanities. This format is discussed at length in chapter 14 of the Manual.

Chicago Author/Date style (sometimes called "Chicago B") uses parenthetical or in-text references containing author last name and date of publication, with full bibliographical detail given in a concluding reference list. This style is used more often in the sciences, and is discussed at length in chapter 15 of the Manual.

One significant change with the 16th edition of the Manual is that the bibliographic elements in both systems have been reconciled to a great extent, so that the Bibliography in Notes and Bibliography style and Reference List in Author-Date style are now treated in the same manner. Abbreviations, capitalization, and the use of quotation marks are also the same in both systems.

The manual is kept at the Reference Desk in Mullins Library:

University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style. 16th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.
Ref Desk Z 253 .U69 2010.
(Also available online to current students, faculty, and staff.)

Electronic Formats

Elements you will need for electronic citations include either a DOI ( Digital Object Identifier) or URL. Read more about DOIs.

Access dates are largely optional, unless the date of publication or revision cannot be determined from the online source. More about access dates in citations can be found in section 14:7 of the Manual. We have included access dates in our examples, below, as some publishers require them.

Chicago Style Examples

Below are some examples of Chicago A and B citation style for common publication formats. You may also wish to consult our links to online help pages or the Chicago Quick Style Guide for additional information.

Article in a scholarly journal

Print Article in a scholarly journal

Journal article citation form Ebsco

Chicago A Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, "Article Title," Title of Journal volume, no. # (date) : pages to be cited.

13Charles H. Adams, "Reading Ecologically: Language and Play in Bartram's Travels," The Southern Quarterly 32, no. 4 (Summer 1994): 65.

Chicago B In-Text Citation:

(Author last name year of publication, specific pages to be cited if not the entire article)

(Adams 1994, 65)

Chicago A Bibliography:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume, no. # (date) : pages of entire article.

Adams, Charles H. "Reading Ecologically: Language and Play in Bartram's Travels."The Southern Quarterly 32, no. 4 (Summer 1994): 65-74.

Chicago B Reference List:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume (issue): pages of entire article.

Adams, Charles H. 1994. "Reading Ecologically: Language and Play in Bartram's Travels." The Southern Quarterly 32 (4): 65-74.

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Electronic Article in a scholarly journal

Electronic Journal Article example

Chicago A Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, "Article Title," Title of Journal volume, no. # (date): pages to be cited, accessed Month day, year, URL or DOI.

13Chaim Goodman-Strauss, "A Strongly Aperiodic Set of Tiles in the Hyperbolic Plane," Inventiones Mathematicae 159 (2005): 119, accessed January 26, 2011, doi:10.1007/s00222-004-0384-1.

Chicago B In-Text Citation:

(Author last name year of publication, specific pages to be cited if not the entire article)

(Goodman-Strauss 2005, 119)

Chicago A Bibliography

Author Last Name, Author First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume, no. # (date) : pages of entire article. Accessed Month day, year. URL or DOI.

Goodman-Strauss, Chaim. "A Strongly Aperiodic Set of Tiles in the Hyperbolic Plane." Inventiones Mathematicae 159 (2005): 119-132. Accessed January 26, 2011. doi:10.1007/s00222-004-0384-1.

Chicago B Reference List:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume (issue): pages of entire article. Accessed Month day, year. URL or DOI.

Goodman-Strauss, Chaim. 2005. "A Strongly Aperiodic Set of Tiles in the Hyperbolic Plane." Inventiones Mathematicae 159: 119-132. Accessed January 26, 2011. doi:10.1007/s00222-004-0384-1.

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Article in a Popular Magazine

Print Article in a Popular Magazine

Periodical Article Citation form Ebsco

Chicago A Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, "Article Title," Title of Magazine, Month day, year, pages.

13Malcom Jones, "True Lit," Newsweek, December 20, 2010, 55-7.

Chicago B In-Text Citation:

(Jones 2010, 55-7)

Chicago A Bibliography:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, Month day, year, pages.

Jones, Malcolm. "True Lit." Newsweek, December 20, 2010, 55-7.

Chicago B Reference List:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. year. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, Month day.

Jones, Malcolm. 2010. "True Lit." Newsweek, December 20.

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Electronic Article in a Popular Magazine

Online Article from a popular Magazine

Chicago A Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, "Article Title," Title of Magazine, Month day, year, pages (if available), accessed Month day, year, URL or DOI.

13Malcom Jones, "True Lit," Newsweek, December 08, 2010, accessed January 26, 2011, http://www.newsweek.com/2010/12/09/did-you-know-that-true-grit-is-a-book-too.html.

Chicago B In-Text Citation:

(Jones 2010)

Chicago A Bibliography:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, Month day, year, pages (if available). Accessed Month day, year. URL or DOI.

Jones, Malcolm. "True Lit." Newsweek, December 08, 2010. Accessed January 26, 2011. http://www.newsweek.com/2010/12/09/did-you-know-that-true-grit-is-a-book-too.html.

Chicago B Reference List:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. year. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine, Month day. Accessed Month day, year. URL or DOI.

Jones, Malcolm. 2010. "True Lit." Newsweek, December 08. Accessed January 26, 2011. http://www.newsweek.com/2010/12/09/did-you-know-that-true-grit-is-a-book-too.html.

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Article in a Newspaper

Print Article in a Newspaper

Newspaper Citation

Chicago A Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, "Article Title," Title of Newspaper, Month Day Year, [edition can be supplied, if available], [section and page numbers can be supplied, but are not required].

13James Gorman, "Deep in the Swamp, an 'Extinct' Woodpecker Lives," New York Times, April 29, 2005, late edition-final, sec. A18.

Chicago B In-Text Citation:

(Gorman 2005)

Chicago style suggests that bibliography entries are not usually needed for individual newspaper articles, since most of the necessary information can be gleaned from the notes or in-text citations. These examples would be for a more formal bibliography. See section 14: 203-213 of the Manual for more information.

Chicago A Bibliography:

Author First Name Author Last Name. "Article Title." Title of Newspaper, Month Day Year. [Edition can be supplied, if available], [section and page numbers can be supplied, but are not required].

Gorman, James. "Deep in the Swamp, an 'Extinct' Woodpecker Lives." New York Times, April 29, 2005. Late Edition - Final, sec. A18.

Chicago B Reference List:

Author First Name Author Last Name. year. "Article Title." Title of Newspaper, Month Day. [Edition can be supplied, if available], [section and page numbers can be supplied, but are not required].

Gorman, James. 2005. "Deep in the Swamp, an 'Extinct' Woodpecker Lives." New York Times, April 29. Late Edition - Final, sec. A18.

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Electronic Article in a Newspaper

Online Newspaper Article from Lexis Nexis

Chicago A Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, "Article Title," Title of Newspaper, Month Day Year, [edition can be supplied, if available], URL.

13James Gorman, "Deep in the Swamp, an 'Extinct' Woodpecker Lives," New York Times, April 29, 2005, late edition-final, http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic/.

Chicago B In-Text Citation:

(Gorman 2005)

Chicago style suggests that bibliography entries are not usually needed for individual newspaper articles, since most of the necessary information can be gleaned from the notes or in-text citations. These examples would be for a more formal bibliography. See section 14: 203-213 of the Manual for more information.

Chicago A Bibliography:

Author First Name Author Last Name. "Article Title." Title of Newspaper, Month Day Year, [Edition can be supplied, if available]. URL.

Gorman, James. "Deep in the Swamp, an 'Extinct' Woodpecker Lives." New York Times, April 29, 2005. Late Edition - Final. http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic/.

Chicago B Reference List:

Author First Name Author Last Name. Year. "Article Title." Title of Newspaper, Month Day. [Edition can be supplied, if available]. URL.

Gorman, James. 2005. "Deep in the Swamp, an 'Extinct' Woodpecker Lives." New York Times, April 29. Late Edition - Final. http://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic/

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Review

Print Review

Review Citation from Ebsco

Chicago A Note:

notenumberReviewer First Name Reviewer Last Name, review of Title of Work (qualifier, if needed), by Author's First Name Author's Last Name, Journal or Magazine Name, volume, issue (Year or Month Year or Month Day,Year): pages.

13David Denby, review of True Grit (film), directed by Joel and Ethan Coen, New Yorker, 86, no. 45 (January 24, 2011): 16.

Chicago B In-Text Citation:

(Denby 2011)

Chicago A Bibliography:

Reviewer Last Name, Reviewer First Name. Review of Title of Work Being Reviewed, by Author's First Name Author's Last Name. Journal or Magazine Name volume, issue (Year or Month Year or Month, Day Year): pages.

Denby, David. Review of True Grit (film), directed by Joel and Ethan Coen. New Yorker 86, no. 45 (January 24, 2011): 16.

Chicago B Reference List:

Author First Name Author Last Name. Year. Review of Title of Work Being Reviewed, by Author's First Name Author's Last Name. Journal or Magazine Name volume (issue): pages.

Denby, David. 2011. Review of True Grit (film), directed by Joel and Ethan Coen. New Yorker 86 (45): 16.

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Electronic Review

Online film review

Chicago A Note:

notenumberReviewer First Name Reviewer Last Name, review of Title of Work, by Author's First Name Author's Last Name, Journal or Magazine Name, volume, issue (Year or Month Year or Month Day,Year): pages, accessed Month Day, Year, URL or DOI.

13Martha Nichomsin, review of Winter's Bone (film), directed by by Debra Granik, Cineaste 36, no. 1 (Winter 2010): 52-54,accessed January 27, 2011, http://0-search.ebscohost.com.library.uark.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=55609581&site=ehost-live.

Chicago B In-Text Citation:

(Nochimson 2010)

Chicago A Bibliography:

Reviewer Last Name, Reviewer First Name. Review of Title of Work Being Reviewed, by Author's First Name Author's Last Name. Journal or Magazine Name volume, issue (Year or Month Year or Month, Day Year): pages. Accessed Month day, year. URL or DOI.

Nochimson, Martha. Review of Winter's Bone (film), directed by Debra Granik. Cineaste 36, no. 1 (Winter 2010): 52-54. Accessed January 27, 2011. http://0-search.ebscohost.com.library.uark.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=55609581&site=ehost-live.

Chicago B Reference List:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. Review of Title of Work Being Reviewed, by Author's First Name Author's Last Name. Journal or Magazine Name volume (issue): pages. Accessed Month day, year. URL or DOI.

Nochimson, Martha. 2010. Review of Winter's Bone, directed by Debra Granik. Cineaste 36 (1) 52-54. Accessed January 27, 2011. http://0-search.ebscohost.com.library.uark.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=55609581&site=ehost-live.

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Entire Book

Print Book

Library catalog image

Chicago A Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, Title of Book (Place: Publisher, year), page numbers.

13Robert Cochran, Our Own Sweet Sounds: A Celebration of Popular Music in Arkansas (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1996), 57.

Chicago B In Text Citation:

(Author last name year of publication, page numbers)

(Cochran 1996, 57)

Chicago A Bibliography:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Book. Place: Publisher, year.

Cochran, Robert. Our Own Sweet Sounds: A Celebration of Popular Music in Arkansas. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1996.

Chicago B Reference List:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. Title of Book. Place: Publisher.

Cochran, Robert. 1996. Our Own Sweet Sounds: A Celebration of Popular Music in Arkansas. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press.

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Electronic Book

EEBO record

Chicago A Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, Title of Book (Place: Publisher, year), page numbers, accessed Month day, year, URL or DOI.

13Thomas Heywood, The Life of Merlin (London: Printed by J. Okes, 1641), 10-14, accessed January 15, 2011. http://eebo.chadwyck.com/.

Chicago B In Text Citation:

(Author last name year of publication, page numbers)

(Heywood 1641, 10-14)

Chicago A Bibliography:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Title of Book. Place: Publisher, year. Accessed Month day, year. URL or DOI.

Heywood, Thomas, The Life of Merlin. London: Printed by J. Okes, 1641. Accessed January 15, 2011. http://eebo.chadwyck.com/.

Chicago B Reference List:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. Title of Book. Place: Publisher. Accessed Month day, year. URL or DOI.

Heywood, Thomas. 1641. The Life of Merlin. London: Printed by J. Okes. Accessed January 15, 2011. http://eebo.chadwyck.com/.

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Book Chapter

Print Book Chapter

Chapter citation

Chicago A Note:

notenumberChapter Author First Name Chapter Author Last Name, "Title of Chapter," in Title of Book, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name (Place: Publisher, year), page number.

13Susan M. Marren, "Between Slavery and Freedom: The Transgressive Self in Olaudah Equiano's Autobiography,"in Literature Criticism from 1400 to 1800: Volume 143. (Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2008), 129-138.

Chicago B In Text Citation:

(Author last name year of publication, page numbers)

(Marren 2008, 129-38)

Chicago A Bibliography:

Chapter Author Last Name, Chapter Author First Name. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name, pages of chapter. Place: Publisher, year.

Marren, Susan M. "Between Slavery and Freedom: The Transgressive Self in Olaudah Equiano's Autobiography." In Literature Criticism from 1400 to 1800: Volume 143, 129-138. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2008.

Chicago B Reference List:

Chapter Author Last Name, Chapter Author First Name. Year. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name, pages of chapter. Place: Publisher.

Marren, Susan M. 2008. "Between Slavery and Freedom: The Transgressive Self in Olaudah Equiano's Autobiography." In Literature Criticism from 1400 to 1800: Volume 143, 129-138. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale.

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Electronic Book Chapter

Book chapter from an online book

Chicago A Note:

notenumberChapter Author First Name Chapter Author Last Name, "Title of Chapter," in Title of Book, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name (Place: Publisher, year), page number, accessed Month day, year, URL or DOI.

13Stephen Roosa and Matt Hanka, "The Environment and Sustainable Development," in Sustainable Development Handbook. ed Stephen Roosa (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2008), 81-112, accessed January 26, 2011, http://www.knovel.com/.

Chicago B In Text Citation:

(Author last name year of publication, page numbers)

(Roosa and Hanka 2008, 81-112)

Chicago A Bibliography:

Chapter Author Last Name, Chapter Author First Name. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book,ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name, pages of chapter. Place: Publisher, year. Accessed Month day, year. URL or DOI.

Roosa, Stephen and Matt Hanka. "The Environment and Sustainable Development." In Sustainable Development Handbook. ed Stephen Roosa, 81-112. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2008. Accessed January 26, 2011. http://www.knovel.com/.

Chicago B Reference List:

Chapter Author Last Name, Chapter Author First Name. Year. "Title of Chapter." In Title of Book, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name, pages of chapter. Place: Publisher. Accessed Month day, year. URL or DOI.

Roosa, Stephen and Matt Hanka. 2008. "The Environment and Sustainable Development." In Sustainable Development Handbook. ed Stephen Roosa, 81-112. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Accessed January 26, 2011. http://www.knovel.com/.

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Entry in a Reference Source

In section 14.247, the Manual suggests that "well-known" reference works such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica are normally cited only in notes and not listed in a bibliography. Less famous reference works should still be listed in a bibliography.

Authors have some discretion in citing entries from reference sources. For reference works with signed entries or chapters by different authors, one can create a citation similar to that for a book chapter. For well known reference works without authors for individual entries, such as the Oxford English Dictionary, one can use the title of the work and "s.v." (Latin for "under the word"). When in doubt consult the Manual section 14.247.

Print Entry in a Reference Source

Entry from a reference book

Chicago A Note:

notenumberEntry Author First Name Entry Author Last Name, "Title of Entry," in Title of Book, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name (Place: Publisher, year), page number.

13Stephen Chism, "Lessie Stringfellow Read," in Arkansas Biography. ed. Nancy Williams (Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press, 2000), 233-4.

Chicago B In Text Citation:

(Author last name year of publication, page numbers)

(Chism 2000, 233-4)

Chicago A Bibliography:

Entry Author Last Name, Entry Author First Name. "Title of Entry." In Title of Book, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name, pages of entry. Place: Publisher, year.

Chism, Stephen. "Lessie Stringfellow Read." In Arkansas Biography. ed. Nancy Williams, 233-4. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press, 2000.

Chicago B Reference List:

Entry Author Last Name, Entry Author First Name. Year. "Title of Entry." In Title of Book, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name, pages of entry. Place: Publisher.

Chism, Stephen. 2000. "Lessie Stringfellow Read." In Arkansas Biography, ed. Nancy Williams, 233-4. Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press.

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Electronic Entry in a Reference Source

Reference article from the Encyclopedia of Life online

Authors have some discretion in citing entries in online reference sources. One can use the title of the web site or resource and "s.v." (Latin for "under the word") or treat the citation more like a book chapter with an author. When in doubt consult the Manual section 14.248.

Chicago A Note:

notenumberEntry Author First Name Entry Author Last Name, "Title of Entry," in Title of Source, accessed Month day, year, URL or DOI.

or

notenumberTitle of Source, s.v. "Title of Entry," accessed Month day, year, URL or DOI.

13Encylopedia of Life, s.v. "Campephilus principalis," accessed January 26, 2011, http://www.eol.org/pages/917243.

Chicago B In Text Citation:

(Title of reference work, year if available)

(Encyclopedia of Life)

Chicago A Bibliography:

Entry Author Last Name, Entry Author First Name. "Title of Entry." In Title of Resource. Accessed Month day, year. URL or DOI.

"Campephilus principalis." In Encyclopedia of Life. Accessed January 26, 2011. http://www.eol.org/pages/917243.

Chicago B Reference List:

Entry Author Last Name, Entry Author First Name. Year. "Title of Entry." In Title of Work. Accessed Month day, year. URL or DOI.

"Campephilus principalis." 2011. In Encyclopedia of Life. Accessed January 26, 2011. http://www.eol.org/pages/917243.

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Published Conference Paper

Print Published Conference Paper

Published Conference paper

Published conference papers are treated much like book chapters.

Chicago A Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author last Name, "Title of Paper," in Title of Conference Proceedings, edited by Editor First Name Editor Last Name (Place: Publisher, year), page numbers.

13M. D. Leh and S.G. Bajwa, "Land Use Change in NW Arkansas: Implications for Runoff Potential on the West Fork Watershed," in IEEE Region 5 Technical Conference, 2007, edited by Vasundara V. Varadan (Piscataway, N.J. : IEEE, 2007), 419-23.

Chicago B In Text Citation:

(Author last name year of publication, page numbers)

(Leh and Bajwa 2007, 419-23)

Chicago A Bibliography:

Paper Author Last Name, Paper Author First Name. "Title of Paper." In Title of Conference, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name, pages of paper. Place: Publisher, year.

Leh, M.D. and S.G. Bajwa. "Land Use Change in NW Arkansas: Implications for Runoff Potential on the West Fork Watershed." In IEEE Region 5 Technical Conference, 2007, ed. Vasundara V. Varadan, 419-23. Piscataway, N.J. : IEEE, 2007.

Chicago B Reference List:

Paper Author Last Name, Paper Author First Name. Year. "Title of Paper." In Title of Conference, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name, pages of chapter. Place: Publisher.

Leh, M.D. and S.G. Bajwa. 2007. "Land Use Change in NW Arkansas: Implications for Runoff Potential on the West Fork Watershed." In IEEE Region 5 Technical Conference, 2007, ed. Vasundara V. Varadan, 419-23. Piscataway, N.J. : IEEE.

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Electronic Published Conference Paper

Online Conference Papers

Chicago A Note:

notenumberPaper Author First Name Paper Author Last Name, "Title of Paper," in Title of Conference, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name (Place: Publisher, year), page number, accessed Month day, year, URL or DOI.

13Phillip J. Jones and George J. Fowler, "The Limits of Democracy in Academic Libraries in a Revolutionary Age," in A Declaration of Interdependence: The Proceedings of the ACRL 2011 Conference. ed. Dawn M Mueller (Chicago: ACRL, 2011), 305-12, accessed May 26, 2011, http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/events/national/acrl2011papers.cfm.

Chicago B In Text Citation:

(Author last name year of publication, page numbers)

(Jones and Fowler 2011, 305-12)

Chicago A Bibliography:

Paper Author Last Name, Paper Author First Name. "Title of Paper." In Title of Conference, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name, pages of Paper. Place: Publisher, year. Accessed Month day, year. URL or DOI.

Jones, Phillip J. and George J. Fowler. "The Limits of Democracy in Academic Libraries in a Revolutionary Age." In A Declaration of Interdependence: The Proceedings of the ACRL 2011 Conference, ed. Dawn M Mueller, 305-12. Chicago: ACRL, 2011. Accessed May 26, 2011. http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/events/national/acrl2011papers.cfm.

Chicago B Reference List:

Paper Author Last Name, Paper Author First Name. Year. "Title of Paper." In Title of Conference, ed. Editor First Name Editor Last Name, pages of Paper. Place: Publisher. Accessed Month day, year. URL or DOI.

Jones, Phillip J. and George J. Fowler. 2011. "The Limits of Democracy in Academic Libraries in a Revolutionary Age." In A Declaration of Interdependence: The Proceedings of the ACRL 2011 Conference, ed. Dawn M Mueller, 305-12. Chicago: ACRL. Accessed May 26, 2011. http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/events/national/acrl2011papers.cfm.

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Government Document

With the 16th edition, the Manual now recommends that legal and government publications now follow a citation style based on The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Law Review Association, 1991- ). Most citations in the Bluebook style use footnotes alone and do not include the same information in the bibliography.

See the Manual sections 14.281 - 14.304 for extensive guidance on citation formats for government documents. Below are some general examples for U.S. documents.

Print Government Document

Record for a printed Congressional Hearing

Chicago A Note:

notenumberTitle of Document, [number] Cong. page numbers (year). (statement by... if citing a specific witness).

13Back to the Drawing Board: A First look at Lessons Learned from Katrina: Hearing before the Comm. on Government Reform, 109th Cong. 182-83 (2005). (statement by Marc H. Morial, president of the National Urban League).

Chicago B In Text Citation:

Give sufficient information to identify the citation fully:

...Former Mayor Marc Morial testified to the Congressional Committee on Government Reform (109 Cong. September 15, 2005, 182-83)...

However, the Manual strongly encourages those citing legal and government materials extensively to use footnotes, rather than awkward in text citations. See section 15:55.

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Electronic Government Document

Online Congressional Report

See the Manual section 14:282 for more detailed guidance. Note style for online documents is generally the same as print, with the addition of a URL. In general, an "accessed' date is not needed unless the document itself is undated.

Chicago A Note:

notenumberCommittee Name, Report Title, H.R. or S. Rep. or Doc. . [number of Congress]-[document number] (year).

13Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. Providing for the Establishment of the Buffalo National River in the State of Arkansas, and for other Purposes: Report to Accompany H.R. 8382, H.R. Rep 92-807 (1972). http://docs.newsbank.com/openurl?ctx_ver=z39.88-2004&rft_id=info:sid/iw.newsbank.com:SERIAL
&rft_val_format=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:ctx&rft_dat=1295E7D36B2096A0&svc_dat=Digital:ssetdoc&req_dat=102B42A8F11068DD

Chicago B In Text Citation:

Give sufficient information to identify the citation fully:

(H.R. Rep. 92-807 (1972))

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Unpublished Thesis or Dissertation

See section 14.224 of the Manual for more information. The titles of unpublished theses and dissertations are given in quotes, rather than in italics.

Print Thesis or Dissertation

Record for a Printed Thesis

Chicago A Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, "Title of Thesis" (Ph.D. diss., University Name, year), page number.

13David Mott, "'Effects of Cattle Pasture Runoff on the Water Chemistry of the Buffalo River, Boxley Valley, Arkansas" (master's thesis, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 1990), 113.

Chicago B In Text Citation:

(Author last name year of thesis, page numbers)

(Mott 1990, 113)

Chicago A Bibliography:

Author Last Name, Author First Name."Title of Thesis." Master's thesis or Ph.D. diss., school, year. (ProQuest abstract number, if available).

Mott, David N. "'Effects of Cattle Pasture Runoff on the Water Chemistry of the Buffalo River, Boxley Valley, Arkansas." Master's thesis, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 1990.

Chicago B Reference List:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. "Title of Thesis." Master's thesis or Ph.D. diss., school. (ProQuest abstract number, if available).

Mott, David N. 1990. "'Effects of Cattle Pasture Runoff on the Water Chemistry of the Buffalo River, Boxley Valley, Arkansas." Master's thesis, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville.

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Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Record for an online dissertation at ProQuest

Chicago A Note:

notenumberAuthor First Name Author Last Name, "Title of Thesis" (Ph.D. diss., University Name, year), page number, URL or DOI.

13Gary Zeller, "'If I ain't one, you won't find another one here': Race, identity, citizenship and land; the African Creek experience in the Indian Territory and Oklahoma, 1830--1910" (Ph.D. diss, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 2003), 113, http://0-proquest.umi.com.library.uark.edu.

Chicago B In Text Citation:

(Author last name year of thesis, page numbers)

(Zeller 2003, 113)

Chicago A Bibliography:

Author Last Name, Author First Name."Title of Thesis." Master's thesis or Ph.D. diss., school, year. (ProQuest abstract number, if available). URL or DOI.

Zeller, Gary. "'If I ain't one, you won't find another one here': Race, identity, citizenship and land; the African Creek experience in the Indian Territory and Oklahoma, 1830--1910." Ph.D. diss, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 2003. (ProQuest AAT 3122394). http://0-proquest.umi.com.library.uark.edu.

Chicago B Reference List:

Author Last Name, Author First Name. Year. "Title of Thesis." Master's thesis or Ph.D. diss., school. (ProQuest abstract number, if available). URL or DOI.

Zeller, Gary. 2003. "'If I ain't one, you won't find another one here': Race, identity, citizenship and land; the African Creek experience in the Indian Territory and Oklahoma, 1830--1910." Ph.D. diss, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. (ProQuest AAT 3122394). http://0-proquest.umi.com.library.uark.edu.

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Web Page

See sections 14.243 - 14.246 of the Manual for more information. The Manual recommends that as much of the following information be included as is possible:

  • title or description of web site
  • the author of the content (if any)
  • the sponsor or host of the site
  • the last updated date or publication date

If no publication or last update date is available, include the date accessed.

The Manual recommends that web sites and blogs be treated in notes, rather than in bibliographies, in most cases.

Web Site Example

Chicago A Note:

notenumberPage Author First Name Page Author Last Name (if given), "Specific Page Title," Name of web site, last modified Month day, year or accessed Month day, year, URL.

13"What is Rock Art?" Rock Art in Arkansas, last modified April 11, 2007, http://rockart.uark.edu/qfwhatisrockart.html.

Chicago B In Text Citation:

(Website Name year)

(Rock Art of Arkansas 2007)

Chicago A Bibliography:

Page Author Last Name, Page Author First Name (if given). "Specific Page Title." Name of web site, last modified Month day, year or Accessed Month day, year. URL.

What is Rock Art?" Rock Art in Arkansas, last modified April 11, 2007. http://rockart.uark.edu/qfwhatisrockart.html.

Chicago B Reference List:

Page Author Last Name, Page Author First Name (if given) or page sponsor. Year. "Specific Page Title." Name of web site. Accessed Month day, year. URL.

What is Rock Art?" 2007. Rock Art in Arkansas. Accessed January 26, 2011. http://rockart.uark.edu/qfwhatisrockart.html.

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University of Arkansas Libraries
365 N. McIlroy Ave.
Fayetteville, AR 72701-4002
  • Phone: 479-575-4104
  • Text/SMS: 479-385-0803
  • Toll-free: 866-818-8115
  • Fax: 479-575-6656