Novel Treatment Strategies Using TiO2-Nanowired Delivery of Histaminergic Drugs and Antibodies to Tau With Cerebrolysin for Superior Neuroprotection in the Pathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease

by Sharma, Aruna; Menon, Preeti Kumaran; Patnaik, Ranjana; Muresanu, Dafin F.; Lafuente, Jose Vicente; Tian, Z. Ryan; Ozkizilcik, Asya; Castellani, Rudy J.; Moessler, Herbert; Sharma, Hari Shanker

More than 5.5 million Americans of all ages are suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) till today for which no suitable therapy has been developed so far. Thus, there is an urgent need to explore novel therapeutic measures to contain brain pathology in AD. The hallmark of AD includes amyloid-beta peptide (A beta P) deposition and phosphorylation of tau in AD brain. Recent evidences also suggest a marked decrease in neurotrophic factors in AD. Thus, exogenous supplement of neurotrophic factors could be one of the possible ways for AD therapy. Human postmortem brain in AD shows alterations in histamine receptors as well, indicating an involvement of the amine in AD-induced brain pathology. In this review, we focused on role of histamine 3 and 4 receptor-modulating drugs in the pathophysiology of AD. Moreover, antibodies to histamine and tau appear to be also beneficial in reducing brain pathology, blood-brain barrier breakdown, and edema formation in AD. Interestingly, TiO2-nanowired delivery of cerebrolysin-a balanced composition of several neurotrophic factors attenuated A beta P deposition and reduced tau phosphorylation in AD brain leading to neuroprotection. Coadministration of cerebrolysin with histamine antibodies or tau antibodies has further enhanced neuroprotection in AD. These novel observations strongly suggest a role of nanomedicine in AD that requires further investigation.

Journal
International Review of Neurobiology
Volume
137
Year
2017
Start Page
123
ISBN/ISSN
2162-5514; 0074-7742
DOI
10.1016/bs.irn.2017.09.002