Superior antioxidant and anti-ischemic neuroprotective effects of cerebrolysin in heat stroke following intoxication of engineered metal Ag and Cu nanoparticles: A comparative biochemical and physiological study with other stroke therapies

by Sharma, Hari Shanker; Muresanu, Dafin F.; Ozkizilcik, Asya; Sahib, Seaab; Tian, Z. Ryan; Lafuente, Jose Vicente; Castellani, Rudy J.; Nozari, Ala; Feng, Lianyuan; Buzoianu, Anca D.; Menon, Preeti K.; Patnaik, Ranjana; Wiklund, Lars; Sharma, Aruna

Military personnel are often exposed to high environmental heat associated with industrial or ambient abundance of nanoparticles (NPs) affecting brain function. We have shown that engineered metal NPs Ag and Cu exacerbate hyperthermia induced brain pathology. Thus, exploration of novel drug therapy is needed for effective neuroprotection in heat stroke intoxicated with NPs. In this investigation neuroprotective effects of cerebrolysin, a balanced composition of several neurotrophic factors and active peptides fragments exhibiting powerful antioxidant and anti-ischemic effects was examined in heat stroke after NPs intoxication. In addition, its efficacy is compared to currently used drugs in post-stroke therapies in clinics. Thus, levertiracetam, pregabalin, topiramat and valproate were compared in standard doses with cerebrolysin in heat stroke intoxicated with Cu or Ag NPs (50-60 nm, 50 mg/kg, i.p./day for 7 days). Rats were subjected to 4 h heat stress (HS) in a biological oxygen demand incubator at 38 degrees C (Relative Humidity 45-47%; Wind velocity 22.4-25.6 cm/s) that resulted in profound increase in oxidants Luminol, Lucigenin, Malondialdehyde and Myeloperoxidase, and a marked decrease in antioxidant Glutathione. At this time severe reductions in the cerebral blood flow (CBF) was seen together with increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and brain edema formation. These pathophysiological responses were exacerbated in NPs treated heat-stressed animals. Pretreatment with cerebrolysin (2.5 mL/kg, i.v.) once daily for 3 days significantly attenuated the oxidative stress, BBB breakdown and brain edema and improved CBF in the heat stressed group. The other drugs were least effective on brain pathology following heat stroke. However, in NPs treated heat stressed animals 5 mL/kg conventional cerebrolysin and 2.5 mL/kg nanowired cerebrolysin is needed to attenuate oxidative stress, BBB breakdown, brain edema and to improve CBF. Interestingly, the other drugs even in higher doses used are unable to alter brain pathologies in NPs and heat stress. These observations are the first to demonstrate that cerebrolysin is the most superior antioxidant and anti-ischemic drug in NPs exposed heat stroke, not reported earlier.

Progress in Brain Research
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