Nickel-cysteine binding supported by phosphine chelates

by Desrochers, P. J.; Duong, D. S.; Marshall, A. S.; Lelievre, S. A.; Hong, B.; Brown, J. R.; Tarkka, R. M.; Manion, J. M.; Holman, G.; Merkert, J. W.; Vicic, D. A.

The effect of chelating phosphines was tested on the structure and pH-dependent stability of nickel-cysteine binding. (1,2-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane (dppe) and 1,1,1-tris[(diphenylphosphino)methyl]ethane (triphos) were used with three different cysteine derivatives (L-Cysteine, Cys; L-cysteine ethyl ester, CysEt; cystamine, CysAm) to prepare complexes of the form (dppe)NiCysR(n+) and (triphos)NiCysR(n+) (n = 0 for Cys; n = 1 for CysEt and CysAm). Similar P-31 {H-1} NMR spectra for all (dppe)NiCysR(n+) confirmed their square-planar P2NiSN coordination spheres. The structure of [(dppe)NiCysAm]PF6 was also confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The (triphos)NiCysAm(+) and (triphos)NiCysEt(+) complexes were fluxional at room temperature by P-31 NMR. Upon cooling to -80 degrees C, all gave spectra consistent with a P2NiSN coordination sphere with the third phosphorus uncoordinated. Temperature-dependent P-31 NMR spectra showed that a trans P-Ni-S pi interaction controlled the scrambling of the coordinated triphos. In aqueous media, (dppe)NiCys was protonated at pH similar to 4-5, leading to possible formation of a nickel-cysteinethiol and eventual cysteine loss at pH < 3. The importance of N-terminus cysteine in such complexes was demonstrated by preparing (dppe)NiCys-bead and trigonal-bipyramidal Tp*NiCys-bead complexes, where Cys-bead represents cysteine anchored to polystyrene synthesis beads and Tp*- = hydrotris(3,5dimethyl pyrazolyl) borate. Importantly, results with these heterogeneous systems demonstrated the selectivity of these nickel centers for cysteine over methionine and serine and most specifically for N-terminus cysteine. The role of Ni-S pi bonding in nickel-cysteine geometries will be discussed, including how these results suggest a mechanism for the movement of electron density from nickel onto the backbone of coordinated cysteine.

Inorganic Chemistry
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