Copper binding affinity of the C2B domain of synaptotagmin-1 and its potential role in the nonclassical secretion of acidic fibroblast growth factor

by Jayanthi, Srinivas; Kathir, Karuppanan Muthusamy; Rajalingam, Dakshinamurthy; Furr, Mercede; Daily, Anna; Thurman, Ryan; Rutherford, Lindsay; Chandrashekar, Reena; Adams, Paul; Prudovsky, Igor; Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh

Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) is a heparin-binding proangiogenic protein. FGF1 lacks the conventional N-terminal signal peptide required for secretion through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi secretory pathway. FGF1 is released through a Cu2+-mediated nonclassical secretion pathway. The secretion of FGF1 involves the formation of a Cu2+-mediated multiprotein release complex (MRC) including FGF1, S100A13 (a calcium-binding protein) and p40 synaptotagmin (Syt1). It is believed that the binding of Cu2+ to the C2B domain is important for the release of FGF1 into the extracellular medium. In this study, using a variety of biophysical studies, Cu2+ and lipid interactions of the C2B domain of Syt1 were characterized. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments reveal that the C2B domain binds to Cu2+ in a biphasic manner involving an initial endothermic and a subsequent exothermic phase. Fluorescence energy transfer experiments using Tb3+ show that there are two Cu2+-binding pockets on the C2B domain, and one of these is also a Ca2+-binding site. Lipid-binding studies using ITC demonstrate that the C28 domain preferentially binds to small unilamellar vesicles of phosphatidyl serine (PS). Results of the differential scanning calorimetry and limited trypsin digestion experiments suggest that the C2B domain is marginally destabilized upon binding to PS vesicles. These results, for the first time, suggest that the main role of the C2B domain of Syt1 is to serve as an anchor for the FGF1 MRC on the membrane bilayer. In addition, the binding of the C2B domain to the lipid bilayer is shown to significantly decrease the binding affinity of the protein to Cu2+. The study provides valuable insights on the sequence of structural events that occur in the nonclassical secretion of FGF1.

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Proteins and Proteomics
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