Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate-Induced Changes in Chicken Enterocytes

by Rath, Narayan C.; Gupta, Anamika; Liyanage, Rohana; Lay, Jackson O., Jr.

Increased intestinal epithelial permeability has been linked to many enteric diseases because it allows easy access of microbial pathogens and toxins into the system. In poultry production, the restrictions in the use of antibiotic growth promoters have increased the chances of birds being susceptible to different enteric diseases. Thus, understanding the mechanisms which compromise intestinal function is pertinent. Based on our previous observation which showed the primary chicken enterocytes in culture undergoing dystrophic changes on treatment with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), we surmised that this model, which appeared to mimic increased intestinal permeability, may help to understand the mechanisms of this problem. As genomic and proteomic changes are associated with many physiological and pathological problems, we were interested to find whether certain proteomic changes underlie the morphological alterations in the enterocytes induced by PMA. We exposed primary enterocyte cultures to a sub-lethal concentration of PMA, extracted the proteins, and analyzed by mass spectrometry for differentially regulated proteins. Our results showed that PMA affected several biological processes which negatively affected their energy metabolism, nuclear activities, and differentially regulated the levels of several stress proteins, chaperon, cytoskeletal, and signal transduction proteins that appear to be relevant in the cause of enterocyte dystrophy. Phorbol myristate acetate-affected signal transduction activities also raise the possibilities of their increased susceptibility to pathogens. The changes in enterocyte integrity can make intestine vulnerable to invasion by microbial pathogens and disrupt gut homeostasis.

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