Site-specific labeling and functional efficiencies of human fibroblast growth Factor-1 with a range of fluorescent Dyes in the flexible N-Terminal region and a rigid beta-turn region

by Mohale, Mamello; Gundampati, Ravi Kumar; Kumar, Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy Suresh; Heyes, Colin D.

Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (hFGF1) binding to its receptor and heparin play critical roles in cell proliferation, angiogenesis and wound healing but is also implicated in cancer. Fluorescence imaging is a powerful approach to study such protein interactions, but it is not always obvious if the site chosen will be efficiently labeled, often relying on trial-and-error. To provide a more systematic approach towards an efficient site-specific labeling strategy, we labeled two structurally distinct regions of the protein - the flexible N-terminus and a rigid loop. Several dyes were chosen to cover the visible region and to investigate how the structure of the dye affects the labeling efficiency. Flexibility in either the protein labeling site or the dye structure was found to result in high labeling efficiency, but flexibility in both resulted in a significant decrease in labeling efficiency. Conversely, too much rigidity in both can result in dye-protein interactions that can aggregate the protein. Importantly, site-specifically labeling hFGF1 in these regions maintained biological activity. These results could be applicable to other proteins by considering the flexibility of both the protein labeling site and the dye structure.

Analytical Biochemistry
1096-0309; 0003-2697