Factors influencing redox magnetohydrodynamic-induced convection for enhancement of stripping analysis

by Anderson, Emily Clary; Fritsch, Ingrid


Factors affecting the use of redox magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to enhance the stripping analysis response to heavy metals have been investigated. The analytes were Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, and Tl+ at concentrations ranging from 5 nM to 2 mu M. Co-deposition of analytes with Hg2+ ( to form a thin Hg film electrode) occurs along with reduction of a high concentration of Fe3+. The Fe3+ provides the high cathodic current necessary to produce a significant Lorentz force, and therefore enhanced convection and larger stripping signals and sensitivities, when the analysis is performed in the presence of an external magnetic field. The effects of varying Fe3+ concentration ( 1-100 mM), working electrode size ( 10 mu m-3 mm), and magnetic field strengths (0-1.77 T) generated with electromagnets and NdFeB permanent magnets were investigated. Using 100 mM Fe3+ as the MHD-generating redox species at a 3-mm working electrode and in a magnetic field of 1.77 T, peak areas from linear sweep voltammetry were increased by as much as 159 (5%, compared to the signal obtained in the absence of a magnetic field. Experimental detection limits as low as 5 nM were achieved with only a 1-min preconcentration time. A field strength as low as 0.12 T offers some signal enhancement with 100 mM Fe3+. While linear scan anodic stripping voltammetry was used primarily to obtain the signals after the deposition step, potentiometric stripping analysis was also investigated. Redox MHD is an attractive alternative convection method for applications involving sample volumes too small for mechanical stirring or for in-field applications using portable devices that cannot be complicated by the instrumentation required for mechanical stirring.

Analytical Chemistry
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