Effects of delayed delivery of dexamethasone-21-phosphate via subcutaneous microdialysis implants on macrophage activation in rats
by Keeler, Geoffrey D.; Durdik, Jeannine M.; Stenken, Julie A.
Macrophage activation is of interest in the biomaterials field since macrophages with an M(Dex) characteristic phenotype, i.e., CD68(+)CD163(+), are believed to result in improved integration of the biomaterial as well as improved tissue remodeling and increased biomaterial longevity. To facilitate delivery of a macrophage modulator, dexamethasone-21-phosphate (Dex), microdialysis probes were subcutaneously implanted in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Dex localized delivery was delayed to the third day post implantation as a means to alter macrophage activation state at an implant site. To better elucidate the molecular mechanisms associated with M(Dex) macrophage activation, CCL2 was quantified in dialysates, gene expression ratios were determined from excised tissue surrounding the implant, histological analyses, and immunohistochemical analyses (CD68, CD163) were performed. Delayed Dex infusion resulted in the up-regulation of IL-6 at the transcript level in the tissue in contact with the microdialysis probe and decreased CCL2 concentrations collected in dialysates. Histological analyses showed increased cellular density as compared to controls in response to delayed Dex infusion. Dex delayed infusion resulted in an increased percentage of CD68(+)CD163(+), M(Dex), macrophages in the tissue surrounding the microdialysis probe as compared to probes that served as controls.