Next generation microdialysis sampling uses and devices for bioanalytical sampling

by Stenken, Julie Ann; Pysz, Patrick; Diaz Perez, Alda; Hunter, Victoria; Olubanjo, Kehinde Adedeji; Maddala, Srusti

Microdialysis sampling has historically been used to collect low mol. weight and hydrophilic solutes from principally brain, but also other tissues. Our research group has focused on developing microdialysis sampling applications for new fields and questions. Of particular interest over the years have been applications related to immune responses, particularly macrophages. Numerous cells comprise the immune system, but the macrophage is often considered one of the more important cell types involved with driving inflammatory outcomes. The macrophage secretome includes radicals (superoxide and nitric oxide), lipid mediated signaling mols. (leukotrienes and prostaglandins), signaling proteins (cytokines) and various proteases (matrix metalloproteinases, MMPs). The versatility of microdialysis sampling has played an important role in our ability to measure various aspects of an inflammatory response. Microdialysis can be used to both collect, but also to locally deliver agents which adds to its tremendous value for in vivo sampling experiments In addition to affecting wound healing, macrophages are believed to be important with respect to the acceptance of bacterial biofilms within humans. Microdialysis sampling is a simple tool that allows for monitoring cell to cell communication within bacterial biofilms and macrophages. Microdialysis sampling also has significant potential to monitor chem. communication among plants via their production of allelopathic chems. within their rhizome. Various aspects of this use will be discussed including how to protect probes in an open field. Finally, the next generation of microdialysis sampling probes will most likely be 3D printed. To get the necessary feature sizes for microdialysis sampling, a combination of two 3D printing technologies have been paired to make an original prototype to use initially for push-pull sampling. The first uses the Nanoscribe (NS) GT two-photon stereolithog. 3D printer, allowing fabrication of complex geometries with 200 nm feature sizes. The NS-printed needle section is then combined with a sep. 3D printed inlet/outlet and structural support section that is printed in less than 30 min on an Anycubic Mono 4K masked-stereolithog. 3D printer. This design will allow for essentially a plug and play approach that will include other measurement capabilities.