Flammable graphene oxides crossing-linked into inflammable, versatile 3D-scaffolds and membranes

by Tian, Z.; Turgut, H.; Ozkizilcik, A.

Graphene and similar two-dimensional materials hold great potential in substituting for traditional semiconductors, and the graphene is known to be among the strongest, lightest and most conductive materials. Graphene oxide, commonly made from graphite powder via the Hummmer's method is a common intermediate for graphene and graphene-derived materials, and has an extremely high flammability that can jeopardize the material's promise for large-scale manufacturing and wide applications. Here we report that the metal ions with three or more pos. charges can cross-link the graphene-oxide flakes into 3D-macroporous scaffolds and transparent thin-membranes. The new forms of carbon-based polymers are flexible, mech. strong and nontoxic, in addition to not burning when in contact with an open flame. Moreover, new results have suggested that other cross-linkers can turn the graphene oxide to show novel properties for applications in a wide range of fields such as electronics, fuel-cell, battery, sensors, thin-film coatings, drug delivery, stem-cell growth, to name a few. This new inorganic polymer chem. can be generally applicable to crosslinking other 2D-nanosheets likewise.