Pharmacology and toxicology of pahayokolide A, a bioactive metabolite from a freshwater species of Lyngbya isolated from the Florida Everglades

by Berry, John P.; Gantar, Miroslav; Gawley, Robert E.; Wang, Minglei; Rein, Kathleen S.

The genus of filamentous cyanobacteria, Lyngbya, has been found to be a rich source of bioactive metabolites. However, identification of such compounds from Lyngbya has largely focused on a few marine representatives. Here, we report on the pharmacology and toxicology of pahayokolide A from a freshwater isolate, Lyngbya sp. strain 15-2, from the Florida Everglades. Specifically, we investigated inhibition of microbial representatives and mammalian cell lines, as well as toxicity of the compound to both invertebrate and vertebrate models. Pahayokolide A inhibited representatives of Bacillus, as well as the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Interestingly, the compound also inhibited several representatives of green algae that were also isolated from the Everglades. Pahayokolide A was shown to inhibit a number of cancer cell lines over a range of concentrations (IC50 varied from 2.13 to 44.57 muM) depending on the cell-type. When tested against brine shrimp, pahayokolide was only marginally toxic at the highest concentrations tested (1 mg/mL). The compound was, however, acutely toxic to zebrafish embryos (LC50=2.15 muM). Possible biomedical and environmental health aspects of the pahayokolides remain to be investigated; however, the identification of bioactive metabolites such as these demonstrates the potential of the Florida Everglades as source of new toxins and drugs. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C-Toxicology and Pharmacology
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