Nanodelivery of Cerebrolysin and Rearing in Enriched Environment Induce Neuroprotective Effects in a Preclinical Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease
by Requejo, C.; Ruiz-Ortega, J. A.; Cepeda, H.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, H. S.; Ozkizilcik, A.; Tian, R.; Moessler, H.; Ugedo, L.; Lafuente, J. V.
Rearing in enriched environment (EE) improves the recuperation in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Administration of TiO2-nanowired cerebrolysin (CBL) could represent an additional strategy to protect or repair the nigrostriatal system. This study aims to explore morphofunctional and biochemical changes in a preclinical stage of PD testing the synergistic efficiency of combining both strategies, housing in EE, and nanodelivery of CBL. Sprague-Dawley male rats receiving intrastriatally 6-hydroxydopamine after a short evolution time were segregated into CBL group (rats receiving nanowired CBL), EE group (rats housed in EE), CBL + EE group (rats housed in EE and receiving nanowired CBL), and control group (rats without additional treatment). Prodromic stage and treatment effects were characterized by the presence of motor symptoms (amphetamine-induced rotational behavior test). Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry and Western blot (p-Akt/Akt and p-ERK/ERK 1/2 as survival markers and caspase-3 as apoptotic marker) were performed in striatum and SN. A decrease in motor symptoms was shown by rats receiving CBL. EE monitoring cages revealed that rats from CBL + EE group showed more significant number of laps in the wheel than EE group. In SN, CBL + EE group also presented the highest neuronal density. Moreover, p-Akt/Akt and p-ERK/ERK 1/2 ratio was significant higher and caspase-3 expression was lower in CBL + EE group. In conclusion, the combination of CBL and EE provided evidence of neuoprotective-neurorestorative mechanisms by which this combined strategy promoted morphofunctional improvement by activation of survival pathways after dopamine depletion in a preclinical model of PD.