Design, synthesis, and anticancer activity of phosphonic acid diphosphate derivative of adenine-containing butenolide and its water-soluble derivatives of paclitaxel with high antitumor activity

by Moosavi-Movahedi, A. A.; Hakimelahi, S.; Chamani, J.; Khodarahmi, G. A.; Hassanzadeh, F.; Luo, F. T.; Ly, T. W.; Shia, K. S.; Yen, C. F.; Jain, M. L.; Kulatheeswaran, R.; Xue, C. H.; Pasdar, M.; Hakimelahi, G. H.

Synthesis of adenine derivative of triphosphono-gamma-(Z)-ethylidene-2,3-dimethoxybutenolide 4 was accomplished by treatment of phosphonate 3 with 5-phosphoribosyl I-pyrophosphate in the presence of 5-phosphoribosyl I-pyrophosphate synthetase. It was found that triphosphonate 4 functions as an irreversible stoichiometric inactivator of the Escherichia coli ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase (RDPR). Triphosphonate 4 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against murine leukemias (L1210 and P388), breast carcinoma (MCF7), and human T-lymphoblasts (Molt4/C8 and CEM/0) cell lines. Paclitaxel ester derivatives of adenine-containing triphosphono-gamma-(Z)-ethylidene-2,3-dimethoxybutenolide 8-10 were also synthesized. Like triphosphonate 4, compound 8 exhibited inhibitory property toward RDPR. It also induced microtubule assembly similar to paclitaxel (5). The structure of the chlorodiester linker in 8 was found to account for this dual property. After treatment of MCF7 cells with compounds 4, 5, and 8, fluorescence microscope examination demonstrated the presence of nucleus shrinkage or segmentation. Bifunctional prodrug 8 exhibited higher lipophilicity than 4 and higher water-solubility than 5. Pro-dual-drug 8 exhibited more pronounced anticancer activity relative to that of the triphosphonate 4 and paclitaxel (5). In contrast, compound 9, resulting from the linkage of triphosphonate 4 and paclitaxel (5) through a diester unit, was only found to function as a highly water-soluble prodrug for paclitaxel (5). It induced microtubule assembly in vitro, but did not show inhibitory property toward RDPR. On the other hand, compound 10, an aggregate of triphosphonate 4 and paclitaxel (5), neither functioned as an inhibitor of RDPR nor exhibited microtubule assembly stimulating activity in vitro.

Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry
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